The main objectives of the current study are estimation of technical electricity potential of solar, wind, geothermal and small hydro in Iran, evaluation of the economic viability under current energy policies, and forecasting the share of these renewable energies in installed electricity capacity and electricity production up to 2030.In addition, Iran’s renewable policies are compared with some selected European countries to reveal the pros and cons of the prevailed polices that in turn provides policy implications. Based on the specified available solar trough technology, solar area, average solar hours, average solar direct irradiation, the technical potential of solar electricity was estimated at 14.7 TWe. The potential of wind, small hydro and geothermal were estimated at 4069 MW, 21415 MW, 35723 MW respectively.Under current energy policies, combined solar power plants, SHPP, wind and geothermal are economically viable. These huge RES’s potential can be realized conditional to availability of technology, investment capital, human capital and other resources along with a long-term driven renewable energy policy.Due to high growth rate of electricity demand in Iran, the nominal installed capacity (from all sources) has increased by 8.9% per annum during 2001-2007. Assuming a flat growth rate of 5% per annum, the nominal installed electricity capacity will reach to 139298 MW in 2030. In the reference scenario the share of RES in total installed electricity capacity is expected to be about 2% in 2030. It is expected that the cumulative RES installed capacity will reach 2.8 GW in 2030 that requires more than 2800 million US dollar investment during 2010-2030. More than 60% of this investment will be likely allocated to small hydro, 20% to geothermal, and 10% each to solar and wind electricity projects. The research concludes that a comprehensive long- run package of renewable energy policies that at least includes removal of fossil fuel’s implicit subsidies, guaranteed RES purchase price or any other targeted financial supports and finally RES targets, may set the scene for a considerable share of RES in the primary energy basket of Iran in the future. Table of ContentsPreface 19Chapter 1: Overview of Energy Market in Iran 211.1. Introduction 211.2. Objectives, questions and methodology of research 221.3. Overview of electricity market 261.3.1. Electricity generation and consumption in Iran 281.3.2. Electricity prices in Iran 311.3.3. Implicit electricity subsidies in Iran 321.4. Policies for RES 341.5. SUNA 371.5.1. History & objectives of Iran Renewable Energy Organization (SUNA) 371.5.2. Assignments & Duties of Iran Renewable Energy Organization(SUNA) 39 Chapter 2: Wind Electricity in Iran 432.1. Introduction 432.2. General information 442.2.1. World installed electricity capacity 442.2.2. Average investment cost 452.2.3. Job creation 482.2.4. Capacity of wind turbines 492.3. Wind electricity evolution in Iran 502.3.1. Installed wind capacity in Iran 502.3.2. Wind energy generation in Iran 522.3.3. Wind energy protection policy 532.3.4. Wind technology in Iran 542.3.5. Negative and positive externalities 572.3.6. Fossil fuel saving 572.4. Estimation of technical potential of wind electricity in Iran 632.4.1. Methodology 632.4.2. Wind speed and wind power 632.4.3. Capacity factor 662.4.4. Estimation of wind capacity potential 682.5. Economic feasibility of wind electricity projects 702.6. Accomplished Wind Energy Projects by SUNA 752.6.1. Engineering design, construction and installation of 600 KW wind turbine (Baba-eyan Manjil). 752.6.2. Engineering design, construction and installation of 10 KW stand alone wind turbine (Sahand-Tabriz) 752.6.3. Installing 130 KW wind turbines connected to grid in Dizbad 762.6.4. Binaloud wind farm in Khorasan province 77 Chapter 3: Solar Thermal Electricity in Iran 83 3.1. Introduction 833.2. General techno - economical information of solar thermal Electricity 84 3.2.1. Technology types of solar thermal power plant 843.2.2. Position of technology’s type 863.2.3. Installed capacity of solar thermal power plants by countries 883.2.4. Environmental impacts 913.2.5. Fact and figures on solar thermal power plants 923.3. Solar energy in Iran 933.3.1. Water heating 943.3.2. Photovoltaic 963.3.3. Solar thermal power plant 983.4. Solar thermal electricity potential in Iran 1003.4.1. Methodology 1023.4.2. A specific direct solar generator power plant 1063.4.3. Sunny hours by provinces 1083.4.4. Solar Areas in Iran 1103.4.5. Solar thermal electricity potential by provinces in Iran 1123.5. Economic feasibility 1153.6. Accomplished Solar energy projects by SUNA 1263.6.1. Sarkavir photovoltaic project (97 Kw) 1263.6.2. Taleghan photovoltaic project (30 Kw) 1263.6.3. Dorbid of Yazd city photovoltaic project (12 Kw) 1283.6.4. Accomplishment of 350 solar water heaters (1400 square meter) 1283.6.5. Ardekan solar water heater (solar bath) 1293.6.6. Solar light project for Gazic border guard building 1303.6.7. Solar light project for road tunnel 1303.6.8. Solar lighting project for administration buildings of regional electricity companies (Zanjan, Tabriz, Qazvin) 1313.6.9. Photovoltaic water pump for agricultural purposes 1313.6.10. Solar lighting for commercial building (6 KW) 1333.6.11. Photovoltaic electricity for villages 133 Chapter 4: Small Hydropower in Iran 1374.1. Introduction 1374.2. General techno-economical information 1384.2.1. Environmental impact 1384.3. Installed capacity in the world 1394.4. Hydropower in Iran 1424.4.1. Small hydropower in Iran 1444.5. Technical potential and feasibility of SHPP 146 Chapter 5: Geothermal Electricity in Iran 1495.1. Introduction 1495.2. General techno-economical information 1515.2.1. Cost parameters of a geothermal power plant 1515.2.2. Geothermal and job creation 1545.2.3. Lead-time by different energy technologies 1545.2.4. Comparison of capital cost 1555.2.5. Environmental impacts 1565.3. Estimation of technical potential of geothermal energy 1585.3.1. Methodology 1585.3.2. Geothermal in Sahand-Sabalan area (Meshkinshahr) 1635.3.3. Geothermal map of Iran 1675.4. Technical potential of geothermal in electricity production 1705.5. Economic feasibility 1745.6. Accomplished projects by SUNA 1795.6.1. Research on potential areas of geothermal resources in Iran (1996-2009) 1795.6.2. Geothermal potential estimation in Khoy and Boshly areas 1805.6.3. Damavand geothermal potential estimation project (2004-2005) 1815.6.4. Design and construction of thermal geothermal pump (2001-2004) 182 Chapter 6: Comparison of RES in Iran and European Countries 185 6.1. Introduction 1856.2. Renewable energy in EU and Iran 1856.2.1. RES production 1856.2.2. Installed capacity in Europe and Iran 1876.3. Policies to support RES in EU and Iran 1946.4. Renewable energy targets in EU and Iran 1966.5. Employment and job creation by renewable in EU and Iran 198 Chapter 7: Prospect of renewable electricity production up to 2030 201 7.1. Introduction 2017.2. Methodology 2027.2.1. RES Composition 2027.3. Trend of installed capacity and investment in RES in Iran up to 2030 204 7.4. Forecast of RES electricity production in Iran (2010-2030) 2087.5. Fossil fuel saving 2097.6. Avoided emission by renewable 210 Chapter 8: Conclusion 213 References 217
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