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اطلس تهران قدیم
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Tehran became a major city of Iran after 1554 A.D. during the Safavid period when Shah Tahmasb I, son of Shah Ismail, ordered the implementation of two large-scale public works. The first project was the construction of ramparts and moats surrounding the entire city, which defined the city’s perimeters and increased its defense. The rampart consisted of 114 towers, representing the 114 chapters within the Holy Quran and enclosed an area of 4.35 km2. The second project was the establishment of the bazaar, the heart of the industrial and commercial activities of the city, surrounded by numerous holy shrines. However, it was 240 years later in the Spring of 1796 A.D. that Tehran became the national capital of Iran, during Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar’s reign. 2016 A.D. actually marks the 220th year since Tehran became the political centre of Iran.The first known map of Tehran (page 18), a Russian spy map, dates back to 1826 A.D. The next Russian map of Tehran (page 24) from 1852 A.D. was translated into Persian and presented as a gift to Naser al-Din Shah Qajar (page 29). After the establishment of the military polytechnic school in 1851 A.D. and the arrival of Europe an military instructors, the importance of accurate topographical maps was recognized by the nation’s leaders. The Austrian artillery trainer for cannons, August Karl Krziz, coordinated in 1858 A.D. the preparation of the maps of Tehran (page 39) and its surrounding area (page 35). This was the beginning of scientific cartography in Iran. By 1863 A.D., maps of Tehran Province for the purpose of tax collection (page 58) were being produced by engineer Abdul Rasool Khan.Tehran dramatically expanded after a huge flood in 1867 A.D. destroyed a large portion of the Safavid period ramparts and moats, after which Alexander Bohler, a French military instructor, designed a new and enlarged rampart and moat enclosure. Within four years between 1867 A.D. and 1871 A.D., Tehran grew from 4 .35 km2 to 19.75 km2 with these new constructions.By 1891 A.D., a highly detailed and technical map of Tehran (page 64) had been produced by Abdul Ghafar Najmolmoq. During the reigning years of Mozafar al-Din Shah, Mohammad Ali Shah, and Ahmad Shah, maps for Tehran postal services (page 126) and Tehran provincial delineation (page 127) were produced. During these years, the Russian, British and French prepared several geopolitical maps of the region including Tehran. For example, the map on page 323 reproduces a map prepared in 1892 A.D. by the British Survey of India at the scale of 1:506,880.In 1914 A.D., German publisher Wagner & Debes prepared a touristic map of Tehran (page 134). In 1922 A.D. the Ministry of Culture’s Investigation Section prepared a map of schools in Tehran (page 138).During the Pahlavi I period (1925~1941 A.D.), modernization of Tehran became a national priority. By 1930 A.D. a map for street enlargement in Tehran (page 158) had been published. In 1932 A.D., the demolition of the Naser al-Din Shah Qajar period ramparts began simultaneous to further expansion of urbanized Tehran. The 1936 A.D. military map of Tehran (page 169) is testimony to the changes in the urban morphology of this period. The creation of a dedicated military cartographic service in 1935 A.D. marked an important milestone in the history of cartography in Iran.The 1937 A.D. urban development plan of Tehran (page 170) clearly shows the new streets, squares and urban development envisioned. The first known aerial photograph of Tehran dating from 1940 A.D. (page 177) displays the realization of this urban development plan.After the invasions by the Russians, British and Americans in 1941 A.D., cartographic activities in Iran suddenly increased. Sergeant Mohammad Reza Ghaffari privately published maps of Tehran and its surrounding (pages 182 and 190). In 1945 A.D., Tehran Municipality commissioned the military cartographic service to prepare maps of Tehran at the scale of 1:10,000, which was further detailed at the scale of 1:20,000 in 1948 A.D. (page 196). Between the years 1945-1958 A.D., the military cartographic service updated maps of Tehran and all of its surrounding areas at the scale of 1:10,000 on a regular basis (page 198). Abbas Sahab was one of the cartographers of the time who produced tounstic maps of Tehran which can be seen on page 206 (1952 A.D.), page 230 (1953 A.D.) and page 242 (1955 A.D.). The British War Office prepared a strategic map of Tehran (page 209) in 1952 A.D. when the Iranian Government nationalized the Iranian Oil Company. Sergeant Mohammad Reza Ghaffari a gain privately pubIished maps of Tehran and its surrounding in 1953 A.D. (pages 212, 218). The same year, Dr Mohammad Mousadegh, Prime Minister of Iran, signed a decree to establish the National Cartographic Centre (NCC).After the 1953 A.D. coup d’etat led by the American and British forces, there was a surge in foreign presence as well as international tourism in Tehran. Combined with the rapid urbanization and expansion of Tehran, the demand for aerial photographs and topographical maps of Tehran increased. Between 1955~1956 A.D., American military experts and Iranian military service took aerial photographs of the entire Iranian territory (pages 234, 244 ), which thereafter became the basis for new maps. NCC prepared 1: 2,000 scale maps of Tehran in 1964 A.D. (page 257). In 1972 A.D., private oil companies with NCC prepared a very detailed map of Tehran (page 278) at 1:20,000 scale.The above mentioned maps are a few representative samples of the over 270 maps introduced within this publication, which may serve as the basis for further research in a multitude of academic disciplines.
اطلس تهران قدیم حاصل پژوهش ۵ سالهای است که به معرفی بیش از ۲۷۰ مورد نقشه (و یا مجموعه نقشه) از تهران و اطراف آن میپردازد. محدوده زمانی این اسناد از ۱۲۰۵ ش. (دوره فتحعلیشاه قاجار) تا ۱۳۵۷ ش. (پایان حکومت پهلوی) است.
نقشههای جاسوسی، نقشههای شهری، نقشههای عمرانی، نقشههای توریستی، عکسهای هوایی و بسیاری نقشههای موضوعی تهران در این اطلس معرفی شده است. این اسناد از بیش از ۲۵ مجموعه داخلی و بین المللی گردآوری شده و در انتشار آن سازمان زیباسازی و سازمان فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات شهرداری تهران، شرکت مادرتخصصی عمران و بهسازی شهری ایران، سازمان جغرافیایی نیروهای مسلح و سازمان نقشهبرداری کشور مشارکت داشتهاند.
جغرافیای سیاسی و حقوقی آبهای ایران: خلیج فارس، دریای عمان و دریای خزر£15.00
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